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The Phulwara tree also known as Cheuri (Aisandra butyracea) is a large deciduous
tree normally about 15 m in height with well-grown trees going upto 40 m.
It’s generally found on hill slopes and valleys along river banks in the sub Himalayan tract,
like the states of Sikkim, Uttaranchal and northern parts of Bengal.
Fruits and Seeds
The fruits are ellipsoid, 2 - 3.5 cm long and about 2.5 cm in diameter, green at first and turning creamy on ripening, enclosing usually one glossy brown almond shaped seed of 2 - 2.5 cm length. The tree begins to bear fruit in 5 – 9 years, going upto 50 to 60 years, with maximum fruit bearing happening around 15 years. The fruits are edible, sweet and contain 8.5% sugars and 5.6% crude fibre. The seeds constitute 20% of the fruit. After removing the pulp, the seeds are cleaned from the pulp and then dried. The seed contains a thin seed coat (20% of the weight) which can be easily decorticated to give 80% yield of white kernels. The oil content of the kernels is 60%. Phulwara fat is light yellow to white in colour, with a pleasant taste and odour
The fatty acid composition of Phulawara fat is C16 (60.8%), C18 (3.2%), C18:1 (30.9%), C18:2 (4.9%). It is rich in palmitic acid. The symmetrical glyceride POP is 62% and it possible to obtain a POP enriched fraction which can be as good as palm mid-fraction (PMF). This fraction is then suitable for blending with SOS fractions obtained from Sal, Mango Kernel, Kokum and Dhupa fats to prepare cocoa butter substitute.