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Dhupa fat is obtained from the seed kernels of DHUPA also known as the Indian copal tree (Vateria indica). DHUPA trees grow mostly in moist evergreen forests in the Western Ghats of India. DHUPA trees have also been extensively planted as avenue trees in parts of Karnataka and Kerala states. The flowering time is from January to March and the fruits ripen from May to July. The fruits are fleshly, wingless, about 50 to 60 mm long and contain one large seed.
Dhupa seed kernels contain 19-23% of a pale-yellow fat having tallow like consistency, which changes on standing. Dhupa Fat is produced from Dhupa seeds after crushing in a solvent extraction plant. Refined Fat is obtained after chemical conventional refining, and this is suitable for edible uses. It is used as a component for filling, as Cocoa Butter Substitute/Extender after proper processing, as well as in yarn-sizing and manufacture of candles, soaps and other cosmetics.
Stearic acid (38-47%), Oleic acid (38-48%) and Palmitic acid (9-15%) are the major fatty acids in DHUPA fat. The fatty acid composition is: C16 (9.0%), C18 (46.9%), C18:1 (41.4%), C18:2 (1.3%) and C20 (1.4%). Acetone fractionation gives 75% yield of stearine with SOS content of 85%. This stearine is used with palm mid-fraction for preparing cocoa butter substitute.